ANSHENG'S BLOG
Certbot使用DNS和文件验证两种方式申请SSL证书
# docker# certbotpublishDate · 2022-01-16 / lastEditedTime · 2022-04-07 10:04:00

Certbot是一个申请Let’s Encrypt免费SSL的工具,其提供系统安装包以及docker镜像的方式运行,本文则通过Docker的方式进行操作。

DNS

在使用文件验证申请SSL证书时会使用80端口做文件校验,但是有时候我们的域名并非会用到80,而会用到一些非80的端口,这个时候我们使用DNS验证的形式申请证书会更方便一些。

$ sudo docker run --network host -it --rm --name certbot \\ -v "/etc/letsencrypt:/etc/letsencrypt" \\ -v "/var/lib/letsencrypt:/var/lib/letsencrypt" \\ certbot/certbot certonly -d ssl.ansheng.me --manual --preferred-challenges dns Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log Enter email address (used for urgent renewal and security notices) (Enter 'c' to cancel): info@ansheng.me # 输入你的邮箱 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Please read the Terms of Service at <https://letsencrypt.org/documents/LE-SA-v1.2-November-15-2017.pdf>. You must agree in order to register with the ACME server. Do you agree? - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (Y)es/(N)o: Y # 输入Y - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Would you be willing, once your first certificate is successfully issued, to share your email address with the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a founding partner of the Let's Encrypt project and the non-profit organization that develops Certbot? We'd like to send you email about our work encrypting the web, EFF news, campaigns, and ways to support digital freedom. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (Y)es/(N)o: Y # 输入Y Account registered. Requesting a certificate for ssl.ansheng.me - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Please deploy a DNS TXT record under the name: # 需要将以下TXT记录添加DNS中,具体看下图 _acme-challenge.ssl.ansheng.me. with the following value: PE4XVQMwkof_r2rZV7SfNQcFWVvb081Mvk0G_u1toj4 Before continuing, verify the TXT record has been deployed. Depending on the DNS provider, this may take some time, from a few seconds to multiple minutes. You can check if it has finished deploying with aid of online tools, such as the Google Admin Toolbox: <https://toolbox.googleapps.com/apps/dig/#TXT/_acme-challenge.ssl.ansheng.me>. Look for one or more bolded line(s) below the line ';ANSWER'. It should show the value(s) you've just added. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Press Enter to Continue # 添加之后稍等片刻,然后回车 Successfully received certificate. Certificate is saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl.ansheng.me/fullchain.pem Key is saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl.ansheng.me/privkey.pem This certificate expires on 2022-04-16. These files will be updated when the certificate renews. NEXT STEPS: - This certificate will not be renewed automatically. Autorenewal of --manual certificates requires the use of an authentication hook script (--manual-auth-hook) but one was not provided. To renew this certificate, repeat this same certbot command before the certificate's expiry date. We were unable to subscribe you the EFF mailing list because your e-mail address appears to be invalid. You can try again later by visiting <https://act.eff.org>. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by: * Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt: <https://letsencrypt.org/donate> * Donating to EFF: <https://eff.org/donate-le> - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

我的域名托管在cloudflare,以下是添加TXT记录的截图

申请成功之后的证书文件存放在/etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl.ansheng.me/目录中

$ ls /etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl.ansheng.me cert.pem chain.pem fullchain.pem privkey.pem README

文件验证

文件验证的形式申请的SSL,首先需要将域名解析到服务器,如果是cloudflare,记得把小云朵关上

我这里用的NGINX,但不管用什么都大同小异,NGINX配置文件如下

server { listen 80; server_name ssl2.ansheng.me; location / { root /html/ssl; index index.html index.htm; } }

/html/ssl/目录中有一个index.html文件,内容为:hello,可以通过curl的方式进行访问测试

$ curl <http://ssl2.ansheng.me> hello
  • 通过certbot申请SSL
$ sudo docker run --network host -it --rm --name certbot \\ -v "/etc/letsencrypt:/etc/letsencrypt" \\ -v "/var/lib/letsencrypt:/var/lib/letsencrypt" \\ -v "/root/deploy/nginx/html/ssl2:/html/ssl2" \\ certbot/certbot certonly --webroot -w /html/ssl2 -d ssl2.ansheng.me Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log Requesting a certificate for ssl2.ansheng.me Successfully received certificate. Certificate is saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl2.ansheng.me/fullchain.pem Key is saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl2.ansheng.me/privkey.pem This certificate expires on 2022-04-16. These files will be updated when the certificate renews. NEXT STEPS: - The certificate will need to be renewed before it expires. Certbot can automatically renew the certificate in the background, but you may need to take steps to enable that functionality. See <https://certbot.org/renewal-setup> for instructions. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by: * Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt: <https://letsencrypt.org/donate> * Donating to EFF: <https://eff.org/donate-le> - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

自动续费

默认情况下证书有效期是3个月,可以将以下命令写入crontab实现自动续费

$ sudo docker run --network host -it --rm --name certbot \\ -v "/etc/letsencrypt:/etc/letsencrypt" \\ -v "/var/lib/letsencrypt:/var/lib/letsencrypt" \\ certbot/certbot renew --quiet
  • -quiet参数不输出日志,也可以去掉查看一下日志