ANSHENG'S BLOG
CentOS 7安装MySQL 8.0
# centos# mysqlpublishDate · 2018-12-17 / lastEditedTime · 2022-04-06 04:49:00

MySQL的默认端口是3306

Linux上面安装的方式主要分为如下三种:

  • YUM

  • 二进制包

  • 源码包

源码包的安装过于复杂,但是可以灵活配置,这里我们就不介绍了,主要介绍yum二进制包的形式。

  • 系统环境
$ cat /etc/redhat-release CentOS Linux release 7.6.1810 (Core) $ uname -a Linux host.localdomain 3.10.0-957.1.3.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Thu Nov 29 14:49:43 UTC 2018 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

YUM

  • 添加YUM源
$ rpm -ivh <https://repo.mysql.com//mysql80-community-release-el7-1.noarch.rpm>

mysql repo的下载地址:https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/yum/

  • 安装
$ yum install mysql-community-server -y
  • 启动并设置开机自启动
$ systemctl enable --now mysqld
  • 查看启动状态
$ systemctl status mysqld ● mysqld.service - MySQL Server Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled) Active: active (running) since 一 2018-12-17 08:47:04 EST; 15min ago Docs: man:mysqld(8) <http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/using-systemd.html> Process: 11986 ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/mysqld_pre_systemd (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 12055 (mysqld) Status: "SERVER_OPERATING" CGroup: /system.slice/mysqld.service └─12055 /usr/sbin/mysqld 12月 17 08:46:55 host.localdomain systemd[1]: Starting MySQL Server... 12月 17 08:47:04 host.localdomain systemd[1]: Started MySQL Server.
  • 登录

MySQL在第一次启动的时候,会随机生成一个密码放在/var/log/mysqld.log日志文件中,我们可以通过grep命令获取到root的密码

$ grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log 2018-06-12T09:34:07.463168Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: WiwB.e2c3udA

其中WiwB.e2c3udA就是root用户的密码,下面我们登录MySQL

$ mysql -u root -h 127.0.0.1 -p Enter password: # 输入密码 mysql>

查看数据库

mysql> show databases; ERROR 1820 (HY000): You must reset your password using ALTER USER statement before executing this statement.

这里会提示我们必须修改root密码才可以正常使用,我们把密码修改为MyNewPass4!

# 修改当前用户的密码 mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!'; Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec) # 刷新权限 mysql> flush privileges; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.06 sec)

然后退出重新登录MySQL

mysql> exit Bye $ mysql -u root -h 127.0.0.1 -p Enter password: # 输入刚才设置的密码 # 查看有多少库 mysql> show databases; +--------------------+ | Database | +--------------------+ | information_schema | | mysql | | performance_schema | | sys | +--------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.01 sec) # 查看有多少用户 mysql> select user,host from mysql.user; +---------------+-----------+ | user | host | +---------------+-----------+ | mysql.session | localhost | | mysql.sys | localhost | | root | localhost | +---------------+-----------+ 3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

二进制包

在安装之前,我们需要安装依赖库,因为MySQL需要

$ yum install libaio libaio-devel numactl numactl-devel -y

最好也把开发工具包安装上

$ yum groupinstall "Development Tools" -y
  • 卸载mariadb
$ yum remove mariadb mariadb-libs -y
  • 创建MySQL用户和组
$ groupadd mysql $ useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
  • 下载MySQL包
$ cd /opt/ $ wget <https://cdn.mysql.com//Downloads/MySQL-8.0/mysql-8.0.13-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar>

获取不同版本的下载地址:https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/

  • 解压并创建软链
$ tar -xvf mysql-8.0.13-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar $ tar xvf mysql-8.0.13-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.xz $ ln -s /opt/mysql-8.0.13-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64 /usr/local/mysql
  • 创建数据文件存放目录
$ mkdir /usr/local/mysql/data
  • 授权
$ chown -R mysql.mysql /usr/local/mysql $ ls -ld /usr/local/mysql lrwxrwxrwx 1 mysql mysql 40 12月 17 09:31 /usr/local/mysql -> /opt/mysql-8.0.13-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64
  • 添加环境变量
$ echo 'export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin' >> ~/.bash_profile $ source ~/.bash_profile

验证是否添加成功

$ mysql --version mysql Ver 8.0.13 for linux-glibc2.12 on x86_64 (MySQL Community Server - GPL)
  • 初始化数据库
$ mysqld --initialize --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data 2018-12-17T14:32:55.725037Z 0 [System] [MY-013169] [Server] /opt/mysql-8.0.13-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin/mysqld (mysqld 8.0.13) initializing of server in progress as process 23954 2018-12-17T14:32:59.438919Z 5 [Note] [MY-010454] [Server] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: fTVb-*WAq1Oo 2018-12-17T14:33:02.335171Z 0 [System] [MY-013170] [Server] /opt/mysql-8.0.13-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin/mysqld (mysqld 8.0.13) initializing of server has completed

记住倒数第二条的信息,告诉你了root的密码是fTVb-*WAq1Oo

  • 生成SSL
$ mysql_ssl_rsa_setup --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/
  • 创建my.cnf参数文件
$ vim /etc/my.cnf [mysqld] port = 3306 user = mysql socket = /usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.sock pid-file = /usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.pid basedir = /usr/local/mysql/ datadir = /usr/local/mysql/data/
  • 设置启动项
$ vim /usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service [Unit] Description=MySQL Server Documentation=man:mysqld(8) Documentation=http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/using-systemd.html After=network.target After=syslog.target [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target [Service] User=mysql Group=mysql Type=forking PIDFile=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.pid # Disable service start and stop timeout logic of systemd for mysqld service. TimeoutSec=0 # Execute pre and post scripts as root PermissionsStartOnly=true # Start main service ExecStart=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --daemonize --pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.pid $MYSQLD_OPTS # Use this to switch malloc implementation EnvironmentFile=-/etc/sysconfig/mysql # Sets open_files_limit LimitNOFILE = 5000 Restart=on-failure RestartPreventExitStatus=1 PrivateTmp=false

重新加载systemd脚本

$ systemctl daemon-reload

启动并添加开机自启动

$ systemctl enable --now mysqld

查看运行状态

$ systemctl status mysqld ● mysqld.service - MySQL Server Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled) Active: active (running) since 一 2018-12-17 09:35:24 EST; 4s ago Docs: man:mysqld(8) <http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/using-systemd.html> Process: 24042 ExecStart=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --daemonize --pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.pid $MYSQLD_OPTS (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 24044 (mysqld) CGroup: /system.slice/mysqld.service └─24044 /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --daemonize --pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.pid 12月 17 09:35:22 host.localdomain systemd[1]: Starting MySQL Server... 12月 17 09:35:23 host.localdomain mysqld[24042]: 2018-12-17T14:35:22.445672Z 0 [Warning] [MY-010139] [Server] Changed limits: max_open_files: 5000 (requested 8161) 12月 17 09:35:23 host.localdomain mysqld[24042]: 2018-12-17T14:35:22.445893Z 0 [Warning] [MY-010142] [Server] Changed limits: table_open_cache: 2419 (requested 4000) 12月 17 09:35:23 host.localdomain mysqld[24042]: 2018-12-17T14:35:23.315272Z 0 [System] [MY-010116] [Server] /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld (mysqld 8.0.13) starting as process 24042 12月 17 09:35:24 host.localdomain mysqld[24042]: 2018-12-17T14:35:24.377008Z 0 [Warning] [MY-010068] [Server] CA certificate ca.pem is self signed. 12月 17 09:35:24 host.localdomain mysqld[24042]: 2018-12-17T14:35:24.414863Z 0 [System] [MY-010931] [Server] /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld: ready for connections. Version: '8.0.13' socket: '/usr... Server - GPL. 12月 17 09:35:24 host.localdomain systemd[1]: Started MySQL Server. Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.
  • 连接并修改密码
$ mysql -uroot -h 127.0.0.1 -p Enter password: # 输入密码 mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!'; # 修改密码为MyNewPass4! Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec) mysql> flush privileges; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.06 sec) mysql> exit Bye

连接测试

$ mysql -uroot -h 127.0.0.1 -p Enter password: # 输入刚才设置的密码 mysql> show databases; +--------------------+ | Database | +--------------------+ | information_schema | | mysql | | performance_schema | | sys | +--------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.00 sec) mysql> select user,host from mysql.user; +---------------+-----------+ | user | host | +---------------+-----------+ | mysql.session | localhost | | mysql.sys | localhost | | root | localhost | +---------------+-----------+ 3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Docker

如果你的环境比较复杂,搭建起来较为麻烦,没关系,我们可以用docker的方式一键启动,而且还是跨平台的。

  • 运行MySQL
$ docker run -d --name mysql -p 3306:3306 -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123456 mysql

上面的指令中,我们运行了8.xmysql版本,把3306映射出来了,这样可以通过127.0.0.1:3306进行访问,其次设置了root密码为123456

更多的启动参数可以参考:https://hub.docker.com/_/mysql/